(Updated September 2014)   Welcome to the hardiness-resilience resource website. This site provides easy access to research and supporting documents on the Dispositional Resilience Scale – DRS, a valid and reliable instrument for measuring the personal resilience qualities summarized as psychological hardiness. The current DRS15-R is the result of 30 years of research and scale development work.

In order to facilitate additional research and information sharing regarding psychological hardiness and resilience, tools and documents developed over many years by hardiness expert and author Dr. Paul T. Bartone are being made available here for use in research, private and non-commercial applications. You can view the list of documents currently available here:


If you wish to download the updated DRS tools, you may do so here:


The hardiness theoretical model first presented by Kobasa (1979) provides a useful framework for understanding resilient stress response patterns in individuals and groups.Often regarded as a personality trait or set of traits, I believe psychological hardiness is better understood as a generalized style of functioning that includes cognitive, emotional and behavioral qualities. What’s especially interesting is that the hardy style of functioning distinguishes people who stay healthy under stress from those who develop stress-related problems.For example, a number of studies have shown that soldiers who develop PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder) symptoms following combat exposure are significantly lower in hardiness, when compared to those who don’t get PTSD (Bartone, 1999).

The hardy style includes a strong sense of Commitment, Control, and Challenge. Commitment is the tendency to see the world as interesting and meaningful. Control is the belief in one’s own ability to control or influence events. Challenge involves seeing change and new experiences as exciting opportunities to learn and develop. The hardy style person is also courageous in dealing with new experiences as well as disappointments, and tends to be highly competent.The high hardy person is not impervious to stress, but is strongly resilient in responding to a range of stressful conditions. Recent studies have shown that persons high in hardiness not only remain healthy, but also perform better under stress.